For months, people from across the country have been converging in North Dakota to protest a massive oil pipeline project under construction.
And now, even with winter quickly approaching, leaders say the movement to block the Dakota Access Pipeline isn’t going to end anytime soon.
You’ve probably seen some of the headlines from the protest — including reports of large-scale arrest s and injuries during clashes with law enforcement — activists attempt to physically block the path of the project.
But what is actually happening at Standing Rock, and why are tensions continuing to soar? Ahead, a breakdown of the key players and the conflict in the Dakota Access Pipeline.
What Is The Dakota Access Pipeline?
The Dakota Access Pipeline is a four-state long, $3.8 billion oil pipeline that will cross the Missouri River. If completed, the Dakota Access Pipeline will run almost 1,172 miles and deliver 570,000 barrels of crude oil each day from the Bakken/Three Forks formations in North Dakota to facilities in Illinois. It would run through private land, except when it crosses bodies of waters.
Who Wants To Build It?
Dakota Access, the pipeline project’s developer, is a subsidiary of the Energy Transfer Crude Oil Company, LLC. It says the pipeline would help the United States become less dependent on importing energy. It also estimates the pipeline would bring an estimated $156 million in sales and income taxes to state and local governments.
The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe has contested the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline. The tribe filed a complaint in federal court alleging that the pipeline could disturb sacred American Indian sites and affect the reservation’s drinking water.
The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe and a successor to the Great Sioux Nation. Since asking the courts for an injunction, other Native American tribes have joined in the efforts to stop construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline.
In addition to the Native American tribes, 30 environmental groups — like Greenpeace and the Sierra Club — have signed a letter sent to President Obama asking him to reject the project. For the record, Obama rejected the Keystone XL Pipeline project in November 2015.
The demonstrations have at times turned violent, with protesters supporting the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe facing off against private security officers from Dallas-based Energy Transfer Partners.
At the time of one high-profile incident in September, tribal leaders said the protests escalated after construction crews destroyed American Indian burial and cultural sites on private land, according to the Associated Press. Video from Democracy Now! showed security officers threatening demonstrators with dogs and using pepper spray.
Reported altercations between protesters and law enforcement have continued to escalate. In late November, dozens of people were hospitalized and hundreds injured after police used fire hoses, rubber bullets, and several other forms of force to curb the demonstration.
— Leonardo DiCaprio (@LeoDiCaprio) May 10, 2016
What Are Politicians Saying?
In an interview with NowThis News, President Obama said that the government is looking for ways to reroute the Dakota Access Pipeline.
“My view is that there is a way for us to accommodate sacred lands of Native Americans, and I think right now the Army corps is examining whether there are ways to reroute this pipeline,” Obama said. “So we’re going to let it play out for several more weeks and determine whether or not this can be resolved in a way that I think is properly attentive to the traditions of First Americans.”
President-Elect Donald Trump has not publicly commented on the project.
What Happens Next?
It’s yet to be seen. The tribe filed a lawsuit against the Army Corps of Engineers on July 27 to stop the pipeline, alleging that the tribe was not consulted and highlighting the danger posed to cultural sites and drinking water. An emergency motion to temporarily block access was denied by Judge James E. Boasberg from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in September.
While construction has started, opponents of the pipeline are continuing to try to shut down the project through the courts and other environmental and federal approval processes.
“This is not the end of this fight,” Dave Archambault II, chairman of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, said.
And in mid-November, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has called for “additional discussion and analysis” of the Dakota Access Pipeline and temporarily halted construction, according to a statement.
The statement invited the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe to participate in discussions on conditions for the pipeline crossing the water supply and reducing risks of a spill. The construction reached Lake Oahe, a reservoir that is part of the Missouri River, on election day, according to The Guardian.
“While these discussions are ongoing, construction on or under Corps land bordering Lake Oahe cannot occur because the Army has not made a final decision on whether to grant an easement,” the statement read. “The Army will work with the Tribe on a timeline that allows for robust discussion and analysis to be completed expeditiously.”
Ed. note: This story has been updated with additional news and developments.
Click HERE to read more from Refinery29.