India remains one of only four countries in the world where polio is still widespread, and the nine months that it has been without a case is the longest since annihilation efforts were launched nearly two decades ago. “We are close to our goal, but are not taking any chances,” said Health Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad.
Polio usually infects children under age 5, through infected drinking water. The virus attacks the central nervous system, causing paralysis, muscular shrivel, deformation and, in some cases, death. While polio has been exterminated in Europe, the Americas, much of Asia and Australia, it remains endemic in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria.
The last new case in India was statement in January in West Bengal state and none has been reported in the traditional polio areas of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh states in more than a year, Azad said. A country is confirmed polio free when no cases of the disease are reported for three years, according to the World Health Organization.
“This year is extremely decisive for India to exploit on the remarkable progress made so far and stop polio virus communication forever,” said Nata Menabde, WHO representative in India. “The present situation is indeed very hopeful but also extremely challenging,” Menabde said in remarks Monday marking World Polio Day. India’s success has followed “unrelenting efforts over the last few years in the highest-risk areas and in reaching the most susceptible populations, such as newborns, migrants and mobile populations,” Azad said.
The government is aware, however, that a slip could lead to a resurrection of the disease. Azad said that a vaccination campaign continues in all high-risk areas and any new case would be declared a public health emergency.
Health officials also remain worried about the possibility of the virus entering the country from neighboring Pakistan, where a number of cases have been reported. Indian health authorities have set up polio immunization booths at the two border crossings with Pakistan and all children who enter by road and train are being given vaccines.
Both Afghanistan and Pakistan continue to have polio outbreaks, said Rod Curtis of UNICEF’sIndiaoffice. Authorities have also stepped up precautionary measures alongIndia’s border with Nepal, with vaccines distributed at 81 points along the 1,120-mile (1,800-kilometer) frontier.
A large chunk of the border is shared with the northern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. No case has been reported from Uttar Pradesh since April 2010, while Bihar has not reported any since September 2010. “There is no room for gratification India must continue to vaccinate its children against polio, until polio follows smallpox as only the second disease to be wiped off the face of the planet,” Curtis said.
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